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Hiv

HIV infection, also known as acquired Immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a global pandemic affecting different communities worldwide. HIV and AIDS is an immunodeficiency disease predominantly transmitted through sexual, parenteral, and perinatal routes. It is estimated that millions of people are living with HIV and AIDS in different parts of the world. However, the highest prevalence of this deadly infection is found in developing countries or low or middle-income countries imposing substantial public health concerns for controlling the disease occurrence. Explore advanced search options by clicking CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS, ICD-10-CM CODES, and LABORATORY PARAMETERS.

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Etiology of HIV Infection:

AIDS is caused by HIV, an RNA retrovirus belonging to the genus Lentivirus. It attacks the host body by primarily destroying components of the human immune system such as CD4+T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells and weakens immunity to fight against infections. When HIV infection advances to AIDS, patients become severely immunocompromised, acquiring one or more opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, oral thrush, histoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis encephalitis, etc.

Moreover, HIV and AIDS is a chronic life-long infection for which presently there is no cure. However, the current treatment algorithm focuses on increasing survival rates of the infected one and prevention of HIV infection transmission to the sexual partners by administering intensive antiretroviral drugs, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, immense research is currently undertaken to discover novel vaccination and specific therapy for HIVand AIDS. However, every effort for the discovery of definite treatment for HIV cure remains grim. Hence, global attention is presently focused on preventive measures and control transmission.


HIV and AIDS Symptoms and Signs:

During the early phase of acute infection phase HIV symptoms are mininal or the patients remain asymptomatic later developing general flulike symptoms such as fever, chills, general malaise, sore throat, weight loss, rash, swollen lymph node, abdominal discomfort, myalgia. Despite viral multiplication, in the next stage ie, the clinical latency stage, the patient remains asymptomatic or exhibits minimal intermittent HIV symptoms for several years. Normally the patients remain healthy during this stage.
Due to the rapid multiplication of HIV during the third stage, the patient becomes severely immunocompromised, developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS symptoms include rapid weight loss, recurring fever, night sweat, prolonged lymphadenopathy, severe diarrhoea, yeast infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina, purplish rashes on the skin, unexplained bruises and bleeding, and development of opportunistic infections. This stage is considered the end stage of HIV infection.


Clinical Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS:

Nowadays, several advanced HIV tests are available for prompt diagnosis of HIV/AIDS.

  • Antibodies screening test: Immunoassay or ELISA test is employed for routine screening of HIV infections. Upon infection, the host’s immune system produces antibodies to fight against the disease. ELISA is considered an accurate test to detect HIV-specific antibodies in the blood within 12 weeks of post-exposure.
  • Antibody/antigen combination test detects the HIV-specific core antigen called p24 and HIV antibodies.
  • The Nucleic acid test (NAT) detects viral particles like viral RNA and determines the exact viral load in blood.


However, the western blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yields the confirmation of positive results of ELISA and are considered the most accurate and sensitive HIV test.


An Insight into HIV/AIDS biospecimens for research:

Catering to the need for human biosamples, Central BioHub acts as a global biospecimens supplier. We leverage innovative research globally with our expertise, inventory, and global clinical network to ensure the best procurement of biospecimens in high demand. Central BioHub offers a spectrum of HIV samples for research or HIV specimens cautiously derived from suspected or clinically diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients of variable age, sex, and ethnicity. The HIV test samples or hiv patient samples available with us comprises human serum and plasma samples screened for HIV infection parameters like anti-human immunodeficiency virus p24 (HIV p24), anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1/2 (HIV-1/2), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ribonucleic acid (HIV-1-RNA), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ribonucleic acid (HIV-1-RNA) preserved at <-18°C at our biobank and readily available for purchase.


Every blood-derived HIV positive biospecimens available with us is ethically derived from contented voluntary donations, de-defined and hyper annotated with patient data and clinical information. Partnering with the fastest international transport network, Central BioHub ensures that every HIV sample is packed within no time and dispatched to your location. Moreover, our scientific experts assist every step of biospecimen procurement and address every question. Reach out to our website to procure high-quality, cost-effective HIV research samples.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the host body by targeting the immune system. Upon infecting, HIV destroys the cells that help the human body to fight against infections. It is a lifelong infection that leads to a severely immunocompromised stage called AIDS. HIV/AIDS is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease (STD). HIV infection can also spread through contact with infected blood, from pregnant women to the child, and by sharing needles for drug injection.
Unfortunately, there is no complete cure for HIV /AIDS. However, it can be managed effectively by treatment with antiretroviral medications. The current therapeutic approach mainly focuses on increasing the patients life span and preventing transmission to others.
Most persons remain asymptomatic during the early stages of HIV infection. However, in later stages develops flu-like symptoms as follows: • Fever with chills • Tiredness • Sore throat • Night sweats • Swollen lymph nodes • Oral thrush • Rashes • Abdominal pain • Ulcers-mouth and genitals • Diarrhoea • Muscle and joint pain
There is no vaccination to prevent HIV/AIDS infection. However, the following ways can reduce the risk of HIV infection: • Sexual abstinence-avoid sexual intercourses with HIV/AIDS patients • Use male and female latex condoms during sex • Avoid sharing of injection needles or injection equipment • Avoid sex with multiple partners • Take pre-exposure prophylaxis medications • Screening for HIV during pregnancy